Leopold Gottlieb Biwald


Leopold Gottlieb Biwald: 1731 - 1805; professor of physics at the University of Graz

26.2.1731 born in Vienna
1747 Biwald joined the Jesuits
1750-55 Studies in Raab, Tyrnau and Vienna
1757-58 Teacher in Laibach
1758-60 Studies of theology in Graz
1761 Graduation as Dr. theol.
1761 Professor of logic and metaphysics
1764 Professor of Physics at the University of Graz
1786-87 1798-99 Rector at the Graz Lyzeum (former University of Graz)
8.9.1805 died in Graz

He started a science history collection, thus being one of the precursors of the Museum Joanneum in Graz.

physica generalis

Most important work:

Physica generalis: His Latin textbook of physics, the first physics textbook written in Styria, was decreed for all universities and lyceums of the monarchy by Emperor Joseph II in 1779. The book contains

  • Physica Generalis, dealing with mechanics including celestial mechanics,
  • Physica Particularis, dealing with special topics including optics.

A translation of selected chapters from Latin into German is ongoing.


  • S. Schreiner, Franz Römer & M. E. Lippitsch. Utra serviette alteri, an Roma Cartagini, an Romae Cartago? – Leopold Biwald über René Descartes und Isaac Newton. Proc. 2nd  EHoP Conf. 193-204 (2012)
  • S. Schreiner, F. Römer, M. E. Lippitsch: Latin Physics – Made in Styria: Literary Ambitions and Scientific Development in Gottlieb Leopold Biwald's Physica Generalis & Particularis. Proc. 1st  EHoP Conf. 207-220 (2008).

Last update: 05.06.2017 back to history